The cost of a bone marrow transplant in India can start as low as $15,000 for the treatment of illnesses such as Myeloma, but it varies depending on the medical condition. The entire cost of a bone marrow transplant in India is also determined by the following factors:
- Donor Availability
- The hospital’s location, nature, and clinical infrastructure
- Hospital stay duration
- The surgeon’s skill and fee
What exactly is a bone marrow transplant?
Bone marrow is a soft substance found within the bones that contains stem cells that create WBCs, RBCs, and platelets. These stem cells lose their ability to make normal and healthy blood cells under specific situations, such as malignancy. The damaged or non-functional bone marrow is replaced with healthy stem cells during a bone marrow transplant. These stem cells might come from the patient’s own body or from a full or half-match donor. These stem cells can also arise from cord blood cells maintained at the time of the patient’s birth in a few situations.
A bone marrow transplant can take a variety of forms in India
- Tissue transplantation using autologous tissue:
Autologous bone marrow implants the patient’s healthy stem cells back into their body. Apheresis is used to extract stem cells, which are then cleaned and stored for future use. Meanwhile, the patient’s chemo or radiation therapy treatment begins. These treatments kill nonfunctional bone marrow as well as a portion of functional bone marrow. When the therapy is finished, the stem cells are reintroduced into the patient’s body through an intravenous catheter.
- Transplantation that is allogenic:
This form of bone marrow transplant includes removing bone marrow from the donor, also known as peripheral stem cells. Doctors may recommend a syngeneic bone marrow transplant, which involves getting peripheral stem cells and bone marrow from identical twins.
Donor of bone marrow transplant in India
If a person is histo-compatible with the patient, they can become a BMT donor. This suggests that their genetic composition is quite similar to the patient’s. A matching donor is often a member of the immediate family, such as a kid, a sister or brother, or a parent.
A patient, on the other hand, may find the greatest match with an unrelated donor. A perfect match is not required, but a near match for a beneficial outcome is required.
The perfect BMT donor ought to:
- Be between the ages of 18 and 44. Your BMI cannot be higher than 35 or lower than 18.
- not have any mental illnesses
- not have any neurological disorders
- not have a persistent lung or cardiac disease
- not having diabetes or any other blood disorders
- not have diseases like HIV, Hepatitis C, Syphilis, etc.
- being not pregnant
How to Donate BMT in India
- An individual must go through a thorough assessment with a doctor to determine their eligibility before deciding to donate their bone marrow or stem cells.
- The procedure’s dangers and potential problems will be explained to the donor, and their medical background will be enquired about. A series of examinations to check for any genetic or infectious disorders will be part of this.
- The donor will go through an HLA type test to see whether they are histocompatible with the patient if the doctor approves them for donation.
- The donor’s body can be harvested for stem cells in one of two methods.
In India, locating a BMT Donor
It might be difficult to find a BMT donor in India. There isn’t a register for this specific category maintained by the National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO). These services and information are offered by a few independent organizations including MDRI and Daitri. Patients can register their information to get the greatest match. On the other hand, if someone wants to register and contribute the relevant information for future use, they can also name themselves as a donor.
What exactly is a BMT process in India?
Prior to the operation
- In India, the method for BMT begins with a complete physical examination that includes regular blood testing and functional evaluations of the heart, lungs, and liver. These tests assist the doctor in determining the patient’s suitability for the treatment.
- If the patient is a candidate for a bone marrow transplant, the doctor will go over the many alternatives available to them. This will also entail identifying an appropriate donor if the patient can’t undergo an autologous transplant.
- The patient will be needed to attend the hospital a few days before the procedure to have an intravenous catheter inserted into a vein in the neck or chest. This catheter will stay place during the therapy to infuse
Throughout the treatment
1. Stem cell collection
The harvest of stem cells is the first and most important stage in the BMT procedure. Stem cells can be acquired from two sources: the patient’s own body or from a compatible donor. The following methods are used to harvest stem cells.
- Autologous grafting
- The patient will be given injections on a regular basis to boost stem cell synthesis at a quicker and greater pace. These injections include growth factors that boost stem cell development and differentiation.
- After a few days, the patient will attend the hospital for a technique known as ‘apheresis.’
- Apheresis is a process that involves drawing blood from a patient’s body, circulating it in a specialized machine, separating stem cells from the blood, and then returning the blood to the patient.
- Purified and frozen stem cells are collected for future use.
- The stem cells from an allogeneic source can be obtained in two ways: apheresis or surgery.
- The doctor will recommend the choice that is optimal for both the donor and the patient.
- If the doctor recommends apheresis, the donor will go through the same treatment as described above. But, if the doctor thinks surgery to be a more acceptable solution, the donor will
- The following phase involves conditioning, which gets the patient’s body ready for transplantation.
- They will get radiation and chemotherapy throughout conditioning. During their conditioning, a patient may receive radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination of the two. This is essential for.
- Using the body’s own cancer or sick cells as a weapon to fight the underlying problem.
- The target illness, the patient’s general health, and the kind of bone marrow transplant are some of the variables that affect the type and quantity of conditioning the patient will get.
Conditioning with a lower intensity
- For certain patients, the best bone marrow transplant facilities in India provide this type of conditioning.
- Lower dosages or other radiation or chemotherapy treatment modalities are used during the reduced-intensity conditioning period.
- Based on the patient’s age and general health, the doctor may advise reduced-intensity conditioning.
- In order to reduce the likelihood of rejection, this conditioning will kill certain sick cells and inhibit the immune system.
Transplanting bone marrow
- The patient is awake throughout the transplant infusion, which is a painless operation. The process takes a few hours to finish.
- The stem cells are transferred into the recipient’s body via a central line for the transplant.
- Before the transplant, frozen stem cells must be thawed. They include a preservative that could give the patient some negative side effects. In such situations, the doctor will provide certain medications to assist avoid any consequences. To help the body flush the preservatives out, more fluids may occasionally be administered.
After the process
The new stem cells will eventually enter the patient’s body and travel through the bloodstream until they reach the bone marrow. These stem cells develop throughout time and begin to produce various blood cell types. Engraftment is the procedure, and it typically takes two to four weeks.
The patient will continue to be vulnerable to several hazards and issues throughout this time, such as:
- Mouth sores or mucositis
- Syndrome of Interstitial Pneumonia (IPS)
- Graft versus Host Illness
- Failure of Grafts Cataracts
- fresh cancers
Bone marrow transplantation life afterward
A bone marrow transplant can help cure or put a number of illnesses into remission. In both circumstances, the patient can expect improved quality of life and a longer life expectancy.
However, the outcomes of a bone marrow transplant might vary from patient to patient. This is generally determined by the type of sickness as well as the patient’s age and overall condition.
- The patient will be under strict supervision and treatment in the hospital for at least one week. The length of the hospital stay will be determined by the severity of the patient’s disease and overall health.
- When the patient’s condition has stabilized, the doctor will release him or her from the hospital under the supervision of a medical attendant. In this instance, the patient should have a steady RBC and platelet count and should not be feverish.
- The doctor will advise the patient to locate temporary lodging near the hospital for a few weeks to months after the transplant. This gives patients more control over the risks and consequences connected with BMT.
- The patient will also need frequent RBC and platelet transfusions until the freshly transplanted bone marrow begins producing sufficient numbers of such cells on its own.
- The goal of the aftercare routine is to control the negative effects of both the transplant and the chemo/radiation therapy.
- Compliance with post-procedure instructions, as well as frequent consumption of prescribed medications, is the most important stage in BMT aftercare. These drugs aid in the management of therapy adverse effects and the prevention of immunological rejection.
- In addition, the patient will be required to make modifications to their food and overall lifestyle. These frequently include:
- To avoid foodborne diseases, use food safety standards.
- Consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean meat, poultry, beans, whole grains, olive oil, and other nutritious foods.
- Eat less salt in your diet.
- Avoid drinking and smoking.
- Avoid crowded areas to reduce your risk of infection
- Maintain an active lifestyle to help you lose weight, have stronger bones, have more endurance, and have a healthier body.
- wherever you go outside, use sunscreen.
- Frequently check yourself for cancer.