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What is a Periodic Table Of Elements?

by Uneeb Khan
periodic table

The periodic table of elements is essentially a table that arranges elements according to their atomic number. Chemically similar elements are grouped together in the same vertical column. The vertical columns are known as groups, and the horizontal rows are known as periods. You can understand better by modern periodic table download.

The periodic table of elements divides all known elements into groups with properties that are similar. As a result, it will be useful to chemists, nanotechnologists, and other scientists. If you learn to understand and use the periodic table, you will be able to predict how chemicals will behave.

In the year 1800, Johann Dobereiner, a German chemist, was the first to notice similarities in the properties of the elements. He discovered that groups of three elements (triads) have chemical and physical properties that are similar. In each group, the atomic weight of the middle element was half of the sum of the atomic weights of the other two elements. The middle element’s properties were also located in the middle of both elements. Dobereiner referred to this grouping method as the law of triads. Later, it was discovered that this law did not apply to all elements, and thus it failed.

Newland’s Octaves

After Doberiener’s triad failed in 1865, the English chemist John Alexander Newlands proposed the law of octaves. He claims that elements can be arranged in ascending order of atomic weight. He also stated that in this arrangement, the eighth element of a row had properties similar to the first element of the same row, representing musical octaves. This law was also rejected because it only applied to elements up to and including calcium. And hence their periodic table of elements was rejected.

Mendeleev Periodic Table

After Mendeleev’s periodic table, the true development of the periodic table occurred. He established the law that “an element’s properties are a periodic function of its atomic masses.” He arranged elements in periods (horizontal rows) and groups with increasing atomic weights (vertical columns). Elements with similar properties make up the vertical column. The periodic table of elements divides all known elements into groups with properties that are similar. As a result, it will be useful to chemists, nanotechnologists, and other scientists. If you learn to understand and use the periodic table, you will be able to predict how chemicals will behave.

We’ll only cover the basics here, but it should be enough to get you started exploring the patterns and relationships in the table.

A straightforward illustration of the periodic table element groups.

The University of Waikato owns the periodic table element groups.

The numbers in the periodic table squares are atomic numbers; only a few have been included to demonstrate the basic pattern to avoid clutter.


Atoms are the fundamental constituents of matter. An atom is composed of three fundamental elements: protons, neutrons, and electrons. There are smaller particles, but they are unimportant in this context. An atom’s nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons (hydrogen is a bit different, it only has a proton). Electrons move in a large area outside the nucleus. The electrons are arranged in energy levels, and the ease with which electrons can be gained or lost in the most distant energy levels determines how an element behaves.

The number of atoms

The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in an atom; the number of protons determines what element it is. A six-proton atom, for example, can only be carbon. The number of electrons in an atom is also indicated by the atomic number. We can deduce how the electrons are arranged from this, which tells us how an element will react with others.


An element is a substance made up of atoms that all have the same atomic number. Using conventional chemical methods, elements cannot be separated into simpler substances. Iron is entirely composed of iron atoms, and iron atoms are identical everywhere – iron atoms on Earth are identical to iron atoms on Mars.

Need for modern periodic table pdf download

A copy of the periodic table will be useful – the one provided here will get you started, or you can print a full one from the website provided below using the modern periodic table pdf download link.

Each element is represented by a square in the periodic table. In some versions of the table, these squares can contain a lot of writing, but for now, three pieces of information are sufficient – each square should contain the element’s name, official chemical symbol, and atomic number.


Early Systematization Attempts of the periodic table of elements.

A total of 63 elements had been discovered by 1869. However, the first attempts at systematisation occurred in 1829 and 1862. De Chancourtois created a chart of elements that were closely related after Johan Dobereiner classified chemical elements into triads. You can understand better by modern periodic table pdf download.

Mendeleev Periodic Table

In 1869, Russian-born inventor and chemist Dmitri Mendeleev discovered the Periodic Law, which organised all chemical elements into columns and rows. The elements were categorised based on their physical and chemical properties.

Extensive Form of the Periodic Table

The Periodic Table of Elements has yet to be fully discovered. Glenn Seaborg, an American scientist, believes that element 130 is the highest possible. Several new elements were attempted to be synthesised, including unbiseptium and unbihexium.

Periodic Table Grouping

The elements in each Periodic Table group have similar chemical and physical properties of the outermost electron shells. The first two rows contain what are known as typical elements.

Group 1 of the Periodic Table contains all alkali metals, whereas Group 2 contains all alkaline earth metals. Groups 18 and 17 are assigned to noble gases and halogens, respectively. The Periodic Table categorises elements as cobalt, chromium, vanadium, scandium, copper, cobalt, and others.

Periods Each element has seven periods that group elements with similar properties. Period 1 consists of two elements, helium and hydrogen, whereas Period 7 consists of radioactive elements. Rare earth elements are found in Period 6. Many Period 6 elements are toxic, heavy, and radioactive.


Because they combine adjacent groups, blocks are also known as element families. The Periodic Table is split into four sections: f, d, p, and s. The f block employs inner transition elements, while the d block employs transition elements. The p block, with the exception of helium and hydrogen, contains post-transition metals, semimetals, and nonmetals. The s block contains alkaline earths and alkali metals.

Major Subgroups

The three major categories are metalloids, nonmetals, and metals, with metals accounting for the majority of elements in the Periodic Table. Nonmetals are volatile and lack metallic properties, whereas metals are malleable, shiny, and ductile. Metalloids have characteristics.

Why is the modern periodic table important for kids?

The Most Expensive Part

Lutetium is the most expensive chemical element available on the market. One gramme is worth $100. Francium, on the other hand, is the most expensive element that can be produced. A small amount will cost several billion dollars.

The Elements with the Lightest and Heaviest Weights

Hydrogen, the lightest element, is also the most abundant. Hydrogen has numerous commercial applications, including hydrogen fuel cells and chemical product production. Uranium is the heaviest element found in nature. Ununoctium is the heaviest chemical element known, but it is synthetic.

The Most Valuable Element Scientists estimate that the total amount discovered is less than 1 gramme of astatine, making it the rarest element. CERN scientists believe that its isotopes could be used to treat cancer.

Precious metal alloys

Palladium, ruthenium, platinum, iridium, and gold are examples of precious metals. Other precious metals include osmium, ruthenium, silver, and rhodium. They have a wide range of commercial applications, including coinage, jewellery, and alloys.

Artificially Created Elements

Some elements do not exist in nature and must be created in a laboratory. They are radioactive and are also referred to as synthetic elements. In 1952, fermium and einsteinium, the first artificially created elements, were discovered. Copernicium, roentgenium, dubnium, ununseptium, lawrencium, and other synthetic or artificially created elements are now known.

The Most Abundant Element in the Universe

Hydrogen is the most abundant element, accounting for approximately 75% of the universe’s mass. Nuclear matter is composed of a colourless, odourless gas. Helium is the second most abundant element, accounting for approximately 25% of all mass. Other elements include oxygen, iron, neon, magnesium, carbon, and nitrogen.

What Are the Numbers of Radioactive Elements?

There are 37 radioactive elements in the Periodic Table. A large number of radioactive isotopes have also been isolated. On the list are berkelium, radon, polonium, californium, thorium, and other radioactive elements.

Which element has the highest radioactivity?

Polonium is the most radioactive element due to the absence of stable isotopes. There are two kinds of it: metal and metalloid. It occurs naturally in extremely low concentrations. The elements lawrencium and nobelium are both extremely radioactive.

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